Scaling and Root Planing
Tooth Extraction & Removal Procedure
Gum Surgeries

Our mouths are full of bacteria. These bacteria, along with mucus and other particles, constantly form a sticky, colorless ‘plaque’ on teeth. Brushing and flossing help get rid of plaque. Plaque that is not removed can harden and form ‘tartar’ that brushing doesn’t clean. Only a professional cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist can remove tartar.

Types of Gum Diseases

Gingivitis: The longer plaque and tartar are on teeth, the more harmful they become. The bacteria cause inflammation of the gums that is called ‘gingivitis’. In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease that can usually be reversed with daily brushing and flossing, and regular cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist. This form of gum disease does not include any loss of bone and tissue that hold teeth in place.

Periodontitis: When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to ‘periodontitis’ (which means ‘inflammation around the tooth’). In periodontitis, gums pull away from the teeth and form spaces (called ‘pockets’) that become infected. The body’s immune system fights the bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line. Bacterial toxins and the body’s natural response to infection start to break down the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place. If not treated, the bones, gums, and tissue that support the teeth are destroyed. The teeth may eventually become loose and have to be removed.

Risk Factors

Smoking: Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of gum disease. Additionally, smoking can lower the chances for successful treatment.

Hormonal changes in girls/women: These changes can make gums more sensitive and make it easier for gingivitis to develop.

Diabetes: People with diabetes are at higher risk for developing infections, including gum disease.

Other illnesses: Diseases like cancer or AIDS and their treatments can also negatively affect the health of gums.

Medications: There are hundreds of prescription and over the counter medications that can reduce the flow of saliva, which has a protective effect on the mouth. Without enough saliva, the mouth is vulnerable to infections such as gum disease. And some medicines can cause abnormal overgrowth of the gum tissue; this can make it difficult to keep teeth and gums clean.

Genetic susceptibility: Some people are more prone to severe gum disease than others.

Procedure to treat Gum Diseases

The main goal of treatment is to control the infection. The number and types of treatment will vary, depending on the extent of the gum disease. Any type of treatment requires that the patient keep up good daily care at home. The doctor may also suggest changing certain behaviors, such as quitting smoking, as a way to improve treatment outcome.

Deep Cleaning (Scaling and Root Planing): The dentist, periodontist, or dental hygienist removes the plaque through a deep-cleaning method called scaling and root planing. Scaling means scraping off the tartar from above and below the gum line. Root planing gets rid of rough spots on the tooth root where the germs gather, and helps remove bacteria that contribute to the disease. In some cases a laser may be used to remove plaque and tartar. This procedure can result in less bleeding, swelling, and discomfort compared to traditional deep cleaning methods.

Medications: Medications may be used with treatment that includes scaling and root planning, but they cannot always take the place of surgery. Depending on how far the disease has progressed, the dentist or periodontist may still suggest surgical treatment.

Surgical Treatments:

Flap Surgery: Surgery might be necessary if inflammation and deep pockets remain following treatment with deep cleaning and medications. A dentist or periodontist may perform flap surgery to remove tartar deposits in deep pockets or to reduce the periodontal pocket and make it easier for the patient, dentist, and hygienist to keep the area clean. This common surgery involves lifting back the gums and removing the tartar. The gums are then sutured back in place so that the tissue fits snugly around the tooth again. After surgery the gums will heal and fit more tightly around the tooth. This sometimes results in the teeth appearing longer.

Bone and Tissue Grafts: In addition to flap surgery, the periodontist or dentist may suggest procedures to help regenerate any bone or gum tissue lost to periodontitis. Bone grafting, in which natural or synthetic bone is placed in the area of bone loss, can help promote bone growth. A technique that can be used with bone grafting is called guided tissue regeneration. In this procedure, a small piece of mesh-like material is inserted between the bone and gum tissue. This keeps the gum tissue from growing into the area where the bone should be, allowing the bone and connective tissue to re-grow. Growth factors: proteins that can help your body naturally re-grow bone may also be used. In cases where gum tissue has been lost, the dentist or periodontist may suggest a soft tissue graft, in which synthetic material or tissue taken from another area of your mouth is used to cover exposed tooth roots.

Gingivectomy: This procedure is performed when excess amounts of gum growth around the teeth have occurred. This results in false pocket formation and the inability to keep them clean.

Flap Surgery
Bone and Tissue Grafts